• WG5. Geochemical and Mineralogical Laboratories

Coordination: Pedro Ferreira, LNEG
Institutions: FCUL, FCUP, FEUP, LNEG, UA

Working group that includes a set of geochemical laboratories that routinely use various instrumental analytical techniques for mineralogical and chemical characterization of geological materials.

Aims to promote (inter-institutional) actions that facilitate access to geochemical and isotopic analysis laboratories, and to create synergies for the viability of activities such as the elementary and isotopic characterization of geological materials, as well as the identification and characterization (chemical and structural) of the minerals that make up the rocks.


  • Quantification of major and trace elements
    by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF, complemented by loss on ignition determination)
  • Identification of unknown crystalline materials (e.g., minerals, inorganic compounds)
    by X-ray Difraction (XRD)
  • Punctual (at the 1-10 micrometer scale) chemical characterization of geological materials (minerals, fused beads/pearls of rock samples)
    by Electron Microprobe
  • Determination of 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios in waters, silicate rocks, carbonated rocks and fossil material, including sample digestion and chromatography separation.
  • Measurement of Rb and Sr concentrations in rocks and minerals, by isotopic dilution.
    all measurements by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS)
  • Determination of the 143Nd / 144Nd ratio, including sample digestion and chromatographic separation
  • Measurement of the Sm and Nd concentrations in rocks, by isotopic dilution.
    all measurements by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS)
  • Separation, identification and quantification of organic compounds
    by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
  • Chemical analysis of rocks
    (incl. Si, Ag, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Fe, K, Na, K, Pb, Sn, Al, Cu, U, Mn, Mo, Zn, In, As, W, Au, Li, Ga) by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
  • Structural-Chemical characterization of crystalline or amorphous materials, in solid, liquid or gaseous states
    by Microscopic Raman Spectroscopy


+ In-house SOFTWARE

  • Application program for calculation of structural formulas of most mineral groups, directly using the output of the microprobe analysis




  • Ion chromatograph
  • Gas chromatograph
  • Elementary analyzer (C, N and S%)
  • Ablation laser extraction line
  • Fluorination line


  • Isotope-ratio mass spectrometer
  • Gas chromatrograph – mass spectrometer
  • Atomic absorption spectrometers
  • Mass spectrometer
  • Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer
  • High vacuum electron probe microanalyzer
  • Electron microprobe analyzer – electron canon
  • Infrared spectrometers (incl. TGC-detector + ATR unit, Fourier transform, portable)
  • Double-beam spectrophotometer
  • LabRaman spectrometer equipped with a 632.8 nm laser
  • LabRAM microscope equipped with a 532 nm laser
  • X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (+)
  • X-ray difractometers (incl. portable)
  • EDS detector


  • Laboratory table for separation of minerals and rocks
  • Microscope/Camera/ Image Analyser
  • Retsh soil sieve

Check more EQUIPMENT available via C4G.